The Battle of 1864

In 1864, famed guide, hunter, outdoorsman and soldier Kit Carson met a superior force of Plains Indians at Adobe Walls. The groups battled there for supremacy of the southern Great Plains. Carson and his soldiers suffered few casualties, but were defeated. They returned to Ft. Bascom New Mexico. Col. Carson was praised for his awareness, tactics and leadership. Vastly outnumbered, his cool head under fire resulted in what is known as “one of the most effective strategic retreats in U. S. Cavalry history.” The battle of 1864 at Adobe Walls was the largest Indian battle in the history of the west and the only battle of the Civil War fought in the panhandle Texas.
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The Battle of 1874

In 1874, Plains Indian warriors of the Comanche, Kiowa, Cheyenne and Arapahoe tribes led by Comanche chief Quanah Parker, attacked 27 men and 1 woman at a buffalo hunter’s camp about a mile northeast of the 1864 Adobe Walls battle site. Greatly outnumbered, though well-fortified in the sod and picket structures of the camp, the buffalo hunters fought the Indians to a draw in a battle that lasted 3 days. Various historical historians report fewer than 30 total deaths resulting from the hostilities with 4 deaths among the hunters, one accidentally by his own hand. This battle precipitated the Red River War which resulted in the defeat and relocation of the Plains Indian tribes to reservations in Oklahoma. Read more.


Dig into the history of Adobe Walls by exploring models, photographs, and more at the Hutchinson County Historical Museum. Plan your visit.


Adobe Walls

Adobe Walls is the name of a place in northern Hutchinson County that has a long, colorful, and violent history.


Bent, St. Vrain & Company

The name comes from a trading post built in 1843 by brothers Charles and William Bent and their partner, Ceran St. Vrain. Bent, St. Vrain & Company was a vast trading company with a network that covered the Texas Panhandle, Northeastern New Mexico, Southeastern Colorado, western Kansas and the panhandle of Oklahoma. The Adobe Walls trading post fell into ruin when it was abandoned in 1849, and later became known as Adobe Walls. Read more.


adobe walls site as Billy Dixon might have seen it.

Adobe Walls site, as Billy Dixon might have seen it.

The 1874 Adobe Walls Historic Battle Site is owned and managed by the Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum. For more information about events at Adobe Walls, please contact PPHM at or 806-651-2244.

Hutchinson County Historical Museum   •   618 N. Main Street   •   Borger, TX 79007   •   806 273 0130

Tuesday - Friday 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.   •   Saturday 1:00 to 4:30 p.m.

Copyright 2014-17